The Cameronians were not deceived by this manoeuvre and continued their field conventicles in defiance of the government. They would not undertake to preach loyal doctrines, nor be dictated to in any way by the state as to what doctrines they should preach. James Renwick continued to be their preacher. He drew up a Testimony to a Covenanted Reformation and in defence of continuing
to preach in the fields and against anti-christian toleration. This was published on the 17th January 1688. He was arrested in Edinburgh on 31st January and charged with preaching against the payment of the cess. He was at last charged with disowning the king's authority, the lawfulness of paying the cess and the unlawfulness of carrying arms.
He was sentenced to death, and on 17th February he was hanged at the Grassmarket, the last victim in this country called to seal his testimony to his religious convictions with his blood.
Around 100 Covenanters were executed in the Grassmarket between 1661 and 1688.